Schnitzler P, Schuhmacher A, Astani A, Reichling J.
Phytomedicine. 2008 Sep;15(9):734-40. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.04.018.Abstract
Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes
simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect
inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with
acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously
tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan
blue test. Lemon balm
showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the
range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference
to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect
(60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed
that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus
suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the
virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR
and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds,
mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant.
Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): a review on antimicrobial effects.
Forouzanfar F, Bazzaz BS, Hosseinzadeh H.
Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec;17(12):929-38. Review.
Nigella sativa seeds have wide therapeutic effects and have been reported to have significant effects against many ailments such as skin
diseases, jaundice, gastrointestinal problems, anorexia,
conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, intrinsic
hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, cough, bronchitis,
headache, fever, influenza and eczema. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the
most active constituent and has different beneficial properties. Focus
on antimicrobial effects, different extracts of N. sativa
as well as TQ, have a broad antimicrobial spectrum including
Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, parasites, schistosoma
and fungi. The effectiveness of N. sativa
seeds and TQ is variable and depends on species of target
microorganisms. The present review paper tries to describe all
antimicrobial activities that have been carried out by various
Antifungal; Antimicrobial; Antiparasite; Antischistosoma; Antivirus; Nigella sativa; Thymoquinone Antibacterial